ACC / AHA staging system
Risk factors for heart failure are present but there are no structural cardiac abnormalities.
Structural cardiac changes are present but patient is asymptomatic.
Previous or current symptoms of heart failure with evidence of structural abnormality, but is able to be managed medically.
Advanced disease requiring hospital-based support; consideration of either transplantation or palliative care is appropriate.
ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management
of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: Executive Summary
A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart
Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise
the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure)
Developed in Collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation
Endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America
Manual of Heart Failure Management. Ed. John D. Bisognano, Mary Beth Earley. Springer, 2009.